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Benign (solitary, noncancerous, localized) mesothelioma
Mesothelioma is a form of cancer that is most commonly caused by previous exposure to asbestos; there are however, cases of benign (non-cancerous) mesothelioma. The difference is in the tumor's development and cause. In malignant mesothelioma, cells develop in the mesothelium, a protective lining which covers the body's internal organs. The most common sites of inhabitance are in the pleura (around the lungs), the peritoneum (around the abdominal cavity), or pericardium (around the heart). The benign mesothelioma is in solitary form. It is important to note that asbestos exposure is not the cause of benign mesothelioma.
Pleural fibroma, for example, is another benign or solitary form of mesothelioma. Simply stated, this type develops as a single tumor, in a circular, firm mass, and is less than 3cm in diameter. When such a tumor is cut, the surface exposes dense fibrous tissue.
Microscopically, this tumor is a coil of collagen fibres and reticulin interspersed within fibroblasts. Sometimes, but quite rarely, mesothelial-lined cracks are visible in the tumor. There are no symptoms for benign mesothelioma. It is detected as a minor radiological in Cat Scans, Magnetic Resonance Images, and chest x-rays. Sometimes the tumor is associated with a general syndrome like osteoarthropathy or hypoglycemia. In many cases, removal of a solitary tumor is generally curative and restorative for the body's normal functions.
There is also a tumor referred to as benign cystic mesothelioma (BCM). This version is an uncommon lesion of the peritoneum, which is the lining around the stomach, and occurs mainly in women of birthing age though possibly found in men as well. Most patients are treated by surgical resection. Hormonal therapy is also best if supplemental treatment is needed, since reoccurrences of cysts have been known to happen. Such therapy can relieve local symptoms around the abdominal area and control cyst size.
Thus far, the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of benign cystic mesothelioma has not been evaluated. In this case study, 17 subjects (13 women, 4 men) diagnosed with benign cystic mesothelioma were observed over the course of a nineteen-year period. Fourteen cases received an immunohistochemical analysis of the body's ER and PR status. As expected, all lesions had the morphological features of benign cystic mesothelioma. Calretinin immunostaining was positive one hundred percent of the immunohistochemical (in 14 of 14 subjects). Five patients had one or two tumor recurrences. No subjects died from the disease. One case tested positive for the estrogen receptor, one case was positive for progesterone receptor, as was one case focally positive for both estrogen and proestrogen receptors.
Though detection of female sex hormone receptors in benign cystic mesothelioma is rare, the focal presence of ER and/or PR in some lesions weaken sustainability for the use of hormonal manipulation as a therapeutic option. More subjects should be analyzed for more sufficient data.
Mesothelioma in the pleural cavity (around the lungs) is atypical tumors. The rare and localized fibrous tumor of the pleura, named benign mesothelioma, is a commonly benign, well-marked tumor. The natural growth process is slow. This type of tumor is often cured by resection. According to medical research, the tumor seems to originate from submesothelial cells.
Unfortunately, the most common type of mesothelioma is the scattered and malignant pleural mesothelioma (DMPM). This strand is truly damaging and naturally aggressive to the body. Its invasive and destructive presence in the body leaves makes the tumor fatal.
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